The cutting edge applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) in areas as diverse as vehicular communication, wireless networks, sustainable information and computer systems and sustainable development were discussed by distinguished speakers during a plenary session on “Intelligence And Sustainability In Future Information And Computer Systems,” during the 108th Indian Science Congress today.
The session was chaired by Dr.Navrati Saxena, ComputerScience Department, San Jose State University, USA.Speaking on “Sustainable Intelligence in Cellular Wireless,” he said vehicular communication plays a crucial role in improving road safety and maintaining traffic efficiency through the exchange of safety messages. Besides road safety, it can also be used to support infotainment services, traffic management, parking assistance, and so on. Intelligence and sustainable communication hold the key for evolving next generation connected cars.
He went on to discuss handover improvement in connected vehicular networks using AI/ML. This optimization reduces frequent, unnecessary handovers and improves the messaging overhead and improves sustainability in wireless vehicular environment, he said.
Co- Chair, Dr Abhishek Roy, Director in MediaTek Inc., USA, spoke on “AI/ML for Next Generation Wireless Networks.” Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) has achieved tremendous success in image identification, video recognition and natural language processing. However, for the next generation of wireless communication, researchers propose AI/ML models and algorithms for wireless air interface by replacing blocks of wireless signal processing chain. It is expected that an AI-native interface can provide significant performance gains under various radio channel conditions, thus providing more sustainability to future wireless systems. He introduced some fundamental aspects of AI/ML for optimizing wireless interfaces.
Prof.SamiranChattopadhyay, Professor , Institute for Advancing Intelligence, TCG Centres for Research in Education Science and Technology, Salt Lake, dealt with the topic “Artificial Intelligence at the Edge for a Sustainable Information System.”
He pointed out that the current era witnesses the promise of man and machine seamlessly integrated and immersed in a virtual world. Edge AI attempts to enable machines and devices to operate with the “intelligence” of human cognition. However, it demands new computing and networking infrastructure in sustainable environments in industrial systems. Prof. Chattopadhyay highlighted the use of artificial intelligence/smart computing in the field of sustainable computing and Internet of Things (IoT) application areas.
Prof. Snehanshu Saha, Associate Professor, Computer Science, Anuradha and Prashanth Palakurthi Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research (APPCAIR), BITS PIlani K KBirla Goa Campus, spoke on “Optimization: A Critical Tool for sustainable AI.”
As the State-of-The-Art (SOTA) model performance advances, it is essential to make deep learning, specifically neural networks, reliable, robust and responsible. Prof. Sahatouched upon some of these issues, workarounds and connections and some bigger problems in Deep Learning. Specifically, the talk dealt with derivative-based optimisationmethod, requiring exact analytical error gradients to be computed and the restrictions of such choices. Prof. Sahapresented a derivative-free optimization via meta-heuristic algorithms. These techniques mean to serve H/W utilization, Carbon footprint reduction, restrict number of iterations to converge, among others.
Ashish Srivastava, Associate Vice President, MphasisCorporation, USA, delivered a lecture on “Intelligence and Sustainability in Future Information and Computer Systems.”
He said, the true value of AI will not be in how it enables society to reduce its energy, water, and land use intensities, but rather, at a higher level, how it facilitates and fosters environmental governance. Deterioration of the natural environment and the climate crisis are exceedingly complex phenomena requiring the most advanced and innovative solutions which can be provided with the help of AI.
AI for sustainability is challenged by overreliance on historical data in machine learning models, uncertain human behavioral responses to AI-based interventions, increased cybersecurity risks, adverse impacts of AI applications, and difficulties in measuring effects of intervention strategies.
He said, the future studies of AI for sustainability should incorporate multilevel views, systems dynamics approaches, design thinking, psychological and sociological considerations, and economic value considerations to show how AI can deliver immediate solutions without introducing long-term threats to environmental sustainability.
Dr. Manu Saxena, who has a Ph.D. in Zoology, Kanpur University has also worked as a Coordinator for monitoring Bluebirds Nest Boxes, New Jersey Plansboro Preserve, USA. She studied the factors regulating breeding cycle of Grey Quail Coturnix and closely monitored the effect of photoperiod on the gonad development and body weight of birds.
Speaking on “Intelligence and Sustainability in Future Information and Computer Systems,” she said, ArtificialIntelligence (AI) is the ally that sustainable development needs to design, execute, advise and to plan the future of theplanet and its sustainability more effectively. Technology like AI will help us build more efficiently, use resources sustainably and reduce and manage the waste we generate more effectively, among many other matters. A study published in Nature shows that AI may act as an enabler on 134 targets (79%) across all Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), generally through a technological improvement, which may allow to overcome certain present limitations.
Sixty-seven targets (82%) within the Society group could potentially benefit from AI-based technologies. AI may act as an enabler for all the targets by supporting the provision of food, health, water, and energy services to the population. AI can enable smart and low-carbon cities encompassing a range of interconnected technologies such as electrical autonomous vehicles and smart appliances that can enable demand response in the electricity sector (with benefits across SDGs 7, 11, and 13 on climate action). Hence, combining AI with sustainable development will help all industries to design a better planet, addressing current needs without compromising future generations due to climate change or other major challenges, she said.